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Bookshelf is a JavaScript ORM for Node.js, built on the Knex SQL query builder. It features both Promise-based and traditional callback interfaces, transaction support, eager/nested-eager relation loading, polymorphic associations, and support for one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many relations.

It is designed to work with PostgreSQL, MySQL, and SQLite3.

Website and documentation. The project is hosted on GitHub, and has a comprehensive test suite.


Bookshelf aims to provide a simple library for common tasks when querying databases in JavaScript, and forming relations between these objects, taking a lot of ideas from the Data Mapper Pattern.

With a concise, literate codebase, Bookshelf is simple to read, understand, and extend. It doesn't force you to use any specific validation scheme, and provides flexible, efficient relation/nested-relation loading and first-class transaction support.

It's a lean object-relational mapper, allowing you to drop down to the raw Knex interface whenever you need a custom query that doesn't quite fit with the stock conventions.


You'll need to install a copy of Knex, and either mysql, pg, or sqlite3 from npm.

$ npm install knex
$ npm install bookshelf

# Then add one of the following:
$ npm install pg
$ npm install mysql
$ npm install sqlite3

The Bookshelf library is initialized by passing an initialized Knex client instance. The Knex documentation provides a number of examples for different databases.

// Setting up the database connection
const knex = require('knex')({
  client: 'mysql',
  connection: {
    host     : '',
    user     : 'your_database_user',
    password : 'your_database_password',
    database : 'myapp_test',
    charset  : 'utf8'
const bookshelf = require('bookshelf')(knex)

// Defining models
const User = bookshelf.model('User', {
  tableName: 'users'

This initialization should likely only ever happen once in your application. As it creates a connection pool for the current database, you should use the bookshelf instance returned throughout your library. You'll need to store this instance created by the initialize somewhere in the application so you can reference it. A common pattern to follow is to initialize the client in a module so you can easily reference it later:

// In a file named, e.g. bookshelf.js
const knex = require('knex')(dbConfig)
module.exports = require('bookshelf')(knex)

// elsewhere, to use the bookshelf client:
const bookshelf = require('./bookshelf')

const Post = bookshelf.model('Post', {
  // ...


Here is an example to get you started:

const knex = require('knex')({
  client: 'mysql',
  connection: process.env.MYSQL_DATABASE_CONNECTION
const bookshelf = require('bookshelf')(knex)

const User = bookshelf.model('User', {
  tableName: 'users',
  posts() {
    return this.hasMany(Posts)

const Post = bookshelf.model('Post', {
  tableName: 'posts',
  tags() {
    return this.belongsToMany(Tag)

const Tag = bookshelf.model('Tag', {
  tableName: 'tags'

new User({id: 1}).fetch({withRelated: ['posts.tags']}).then((user) => {
}).catch((error) => {

Official Plugins

  • Virtuals: Define virtual properties on your model to compute new values.
  • Case Converter: Handles the conversion between the database's snake_cased and a model's camelCased properties automatically.
  • Processor: Allows defining custom processor functions that handle transformation of values whenever they are .set() on a model.

Community plugins

  • bookshelf-cascade-delete - Cascade delete related models on destroy.
  • bookshelf-json-columns - Parse and stringify JSON columns on save and fetch instead of manually define hooks for each model (PostgreSQL and SQLite).
  • bookshelf-mask - Similar to the functionality of the Model#visible attribute but supporting multiple scopes, masking models and collections using the json-mask API.
  • bookshelf-schema - A plugin for handling fields, relations, scopes and more.
  • bookshelf-signals - A plugin that translates Bookshelf events to a central hub.
  • bookshelf-paranoia - Protect your database from data loss by soft deleting your rows.
  • bookshelf-uuid - Automatically generates UUIDs for your models.
  • bookshelf-modelbase - An alternative to extend Model, adding timestamps, attribute validation and some native CRUD methods.
  • bookshelf-advanced-serialization - A more powerful visibility plugin, supporting serializing models and collections according to access permissions, application context, and after ensuring relations have been loaded.
  • bookshelf-plugin-mode - Plugin inspired by the functionality of the Model#visible attribute, allowing to specify different modes with corresponding visible/hidden fields of model.
  • bookshelf-secure-password - A plugin for easily securing passwords using bcrypt.
  • bookshelf-default-select - Enables default column selection for models. Inspired by the functionality of the Model#visible attribute, but operates on the database level.
  • bookshelf-ez-fetch - Convenient fetching methods which allow for compact filtering, relation selection and error handling.
  • bookshelf-manager - Model & Collection manager to make it easy to create & save deep, nested JSON structures from API requests.


Have questions about the library? Come join us in the #bookshelf freenode IRC channel for support on knex.js and bookshelf.js, or post an issue on Stack Overflow.


If you want to contribute to Bookshelf you'll usually want to report an issue or submit a pull-request. For this purpose the online repository is available on GitHub.

For further help setting up your local development environment or learning how you can contribute to Bookshelf you should read the Contributing document available on GitHub.


Can I use standard node.js style callbacks?

Yes, you can call .asCallback(function(err, resp) { on any database operation method and use the standard (err, result) style callback interface if you prefer.

My relations don't seem to be loading, what's up?

Make sure to check that the type is correct for the initial parameters passed to the initial model being fetched. For example new Model({id: '1'}).load([relations...]) will not return the same as new Model({id: 1}).load([relations...]) - notice that the id is a string in one case and a number in the other. This can be a common mistake if retrieving the id from a url parameter.

This is only an issue if you're eager loading data with load without first fetching the original model. new Model({id: '1'}).fetch({withRelated: [relations...]}) should work just fine.

My process won't exit after my script is finished, why?

The issue here is that Knex, the database abstraction layer used by Bookshelf, uses connection pooling and thus keeps the database connection open. If you want your process to exit after your script has finished, you will have to call .destroy(cb) on the knex property of your Bookshelf instance or on the Knex instance passed during initialization. More information about connection pooling can be found over at the Knex docs.

How do I debug?

If you pass debug: true in the options object to your knex initialize call, you can see all of the query calls being made. You can also pass that same option to all methods that access the database, like model.fetch() or model.destroy(). Examples:

// Turning on debug mode for all queries
const knex = require('knex')({
  debug: true,
  client: 'mysql',
  connection: process.env.MYSQL_DATABASE_CONNECTION
const bookshelf = require('bookshelf')(knex)

// Debugging a single query
new User({id: 1}).fetch({debug: true, withRelated: ['posts.tags']}).then(user => {
  // ...

Sometimes you need to dive a bit further into the various calls and see what all is going on behind the scenes. You can use node-inspector, which allows you to debug code with debugger statements like you would in the browser.

Bookshelf uses its own copy of the bluebird Promise library. You can read up here for more on debugging Promises.

Adding the following block at the start of your application code will catch any errors not otherwise caught in the normal Promise chain handlers, which is very helpful in debugging:

process.stderr.on('data', (data) => {

How do I run the test suite?

See the CONTRIBUTING document on GitHub.

Can I use Bookshelf outside of Node.js?

While it primarily targets Node.js, all dependencies are browser compatible, and it could be adapted to work with other javascript environments supporting a sqlite3 database, by providing a custom Knex adapter. No such adapter exists though.

Which open-source projects are using Bookshelf?

We found the following projects using Bookshelf, but there can be more:

  • Ghost (A blogging platform) uses bookshelf. [Link]
  • Soapee (Soap Making Community and Resources) uses bookshelf. [Link]
  • NodeZA (Node.js social platform for developers in South Africa) uses bookshelf. [Link]
  • Sunday Cook (A social cooking event platform) uses bookshelf. [Link]
  • FlyptoX (Open-source Node.js cryptocurrency exchange) uses bookshelf. [Link]
  • And of course, everything on here use bookshelf too.

Change Log

1.2.0 Jun 07, 2020 - Diff


  • Add option to control auto refresh after save: #2070


  • Adds some more integration tests to Collection#fetch: #2079


  • Support Knex version 0.21.0 and up: #2072
  • Update some dependencies of dependencies to fix security warnings: #2078

1.1.1 Mar 28, 2020 - Diff

Bug fixes

  • Fix attributes that are changed during event hook not being persisted: #2062
  • Fix incorrect query object being sent to event handlers with morphTo: #2059
  • Fix non-object attributes being passed to model.parse() in some cases: #2056


  • Fix typo in doclet: #2057

0.15.2 Mar 28, 2020 - Diff

Bug fixes

  • Fix attributes that are changed during event hook not being persisted: #2063

1.1.0 Jan 31, 2020 - Diff


  • Add option to disable the count information in fetchPage: #2045


  • Small refactor to some tests: #2050


  • Update some dependencies to their latest versions: #2053
  • Update Knex to version 0.20.8: #2049

1.0.1 Oct 06, 2019 - Diff

Bug fixes

  • Fix JSON.stringify causing TypeError in some cases: #2029


  • Add documentation for Model#id: #2031
  • Fix number of arguments in Model#save doclet: #2030


  • Update js-yaml to version 3.13.1: #2023
  • Update handlebars to version 4.2.1: #2022
  • Update uuid to version 3.3.3: #2021
  • Update sqlite3 to version 4.1.0: #2021
  • Update sinon to 7.4.2: #2021
  • Update prettier to 1.18.2: #2021
  • Update mocha to version 6.2.0: #2021
  • Update lint-staged to version 9.2.5: #2021
  • Update jsdoc to version 3.6.3: #2021
  • Update husky to version 3.0.5: #2021
  • Update eslint-plugin-prettier to version 3.1.1: #2021
  • Update eslint-config-prettier to version 6.3.0: #2021
  • Update eslint to version 6.4.0: #2021
  • Update chai to 4.2.0: #2021
  • Update eslint-utils from 1.3.1 to 1.4.2: #2020

1.0.0 Sep 13, 2019 - Diff

Breaking changes

  • This version requires Node.js 8+ if using a Knex version greater than 0.18.4, otherwise Node.js 6 is still supported: #1991
  • Make require: true the default for Model#fetch: #2006
  • Remove some Model and Collection lodash based methods: #2005
  • Change Collection#where so it behaves like Model#where: #2001
  • Move all plugins to their own repositories: #2000
  • Promote some useful plugins to core: #1992, #1993, #1996


  • Refresh model attributes after a save operation: #2012

Bug fixes

  • Fix missing columns after save: #2012
  • Fix Case Converter plugin overriding any previously defined parse methods: #2000, case-converter-plugin@1.0.0
  • Fix registry saving models inadvertently across different bookshelf instances: #1996


  • Add example of how to use custom collections: #2015
  • Improve documentation related to debug mode: #2014
  • Add note that count methods return String with Postgres: #2013
  • Fix typo in Readme: #1998
  • Better Plugin Docs: #1992, #1993, #1996, #2000


  • Update lint-staged to version 9.1.0: #1994
  • Update bluebird to 3.5.5: #1991
  • Update lodash to 4.17.14: #1991
  • Update mocha to version 6.1.4: #1991
  • Update mysql to version 2.17.1: #1991
  • Update pg to version 7.11.0: #1991
  • Update sinon to version 7.3.2: #1991
  • Update sinon-chai to version 3.3.0: #1991
  • Update sqlite3 to version 4.0.9: #1991
  • Update uuid to version 3.3.2: #1991
  • Update eslint-config-prettier to 6.0.0: #1957
  • Update eslint to version 6.0.0: #1986

0.15.1 Jun 13, 2019 - Diff

  • Update husky to version 2.4.1: #1984
  • Bump supported knex version to 0.17: #1982

0.15.0 Jun 13, 2019 - Diff

Breaking changes

  • This version requires Node.js 6+
  • Remove code that has been deprecated for a long time: #1956

Bug fixes

  • once removes all events after it has been triggered: #1972
  • Pagination details are wrong when selecting distinct values of a column: #1950
  • Fix missing attributes in some events: #1934

Test Suite

  • Fix Docker-compose.yml default postgres user: #1972
  • Fix JSON tests on PostgreSQL 10+: #1955


  • Update and fix a lot of doclets: #1951
  • Update #1940


  • Update mocha to version 6.1.1: #1968
  • Update eslint-config-prettier to 4.1.0: #1957
  • Update sinon to version 7.2.4: #1947
  • Update eslint to version 5.1.0: #1930

0.14.2 Dec 17, 2018 - Diff

Bug fixes

  • Fix crash when using groupBy with table qualifier in pagination plugin: #1928
  • Fix undefined transaction object with Knex 0.15+: #1926


  • Refactor logic behind .timestamp()'s decision for when to update the updated_at column: #1892

0.14.1 Dec 09, 2018 - Diff


  • Allow passing custom options to the pagination plugin's internal count method. This is useful for better interoperability with other plugins: #1914

Bug fixes

  • Fix withRelated fetch option not always grouping properly when using binary primary keys: #1918


  • Add a basic Events guide and fix some issues with the events doclets: #1917

0.14.0 Dec 09, 2018 - Diff

Breaking changes

  • The previous() and previousAttributes() methods were changed so that whenever a model is saved or destroyed the previous attributes are no longer reset to the current attributes. Since the old behavior wasn't very useful it's likely this won't cause issues for many people. There's a migration guide in case you are affected by this change. #1848
  • Fix incorrect results in collection when models have duplicate ids. Checkout the migration guide in case you are affected by this. #1846
  • Empty hasOne relation will now return null instead of {} when serialized: #1839. There's a migration guide in the rare event this causes you problems.
  • Add more helpful error messages on bad or insufficient morphTo data: #1824. There's a migration guide in case you are affected by this.
  • Changed the existing functionality so that saving a model that hasn't changed will not update its updated_at attribute: #1798. Checkout the migration guide in case you are affected by this.


  • Make collections iterable using for ... of loops: #1830
  • Add row-level locking options: #1810

Bug fixes

  • Return clones of nested objects in previousAttributes(): #1876
  • Fix incorrect rowCount value when using groupBy with fetchPage(): #1852
  • Fix eager loading of relations when using parse/format: #1838
  • Fix inability to install bookshelf from git commit: #1835
  • Fix timestamp() setting a key named "null" in some cases: #1820
  • Fix performance of including relationships: #1800

Test Suite

  • Add test to check for adding withRelated inside events: #1853
  • Add Node.js 10 to the Travis config: #1829
  • Fix incorrect output ordering in tests in some cases: #1825


  • Change the JSDoc theme to add a Guides section (this was already released): #1909
  • Fix hasOne's doc: #1890
  • Fix many-to-many tutorial code: #1888
  • Add code syntax highlighting for tutorials: #1850
  • Fix a few issues with the collection documentation: #1836
  • Fix Model.load() relations param: #1834
  • Fix incorrect docs for collection:fetching event: #1831
  • Add note on needing the Pagination plugin to use fetchPage(): #1803
  • Fix incorrect data types and undocumented Model property: #1797


  • Replace turbocolor with colorette: #1904
  • Use prettier to format all js and json files: #1883
  • Replace chalk with turbocolor: #1878
  • Update some insecure dependencies: #1841
  • Replace Babel with Node 4 compatible JavaScript: #1835
  • Update sinon to the latest version: #1833

0.13.3 Mar 26, 2018 - Diff

Potentially breaking changes

  • Saving a model that hasn't changed will not update its updated_at attribute. This was included in a patch release because the chances of any applications depending on this behavior are very small: #1798

Bug fixes

  • Clean up automatic timestamps feature: #1798


  • Expand documentation of the automatic timestamps feature: #1798

0.13.2 Mar 23, 2018 - Diff

Bug fixes

  • Fix timestamps set with Invalid Date in some cases: #1796


  • Fix incorrect data types and undocumented Model#defaults property: #1797

0.13.0 Mar 18, 2018 - Diff

Breaking changes

  • Make require: true the default when deleting models: #1779
  • Remove the second argument to the model's destroyed event handler: #1777
  • Events are now triggered sequentially even when the handlers execute asynchronous code: #1768
  • Drop support for Node versions older than 4: #1696
  • Reorder saving and creating events to reflect the documentation: #1142


  • Only request returning attribute if client supports returning: #1770
  • Throw error if user doesn't pass a valid Knex instance on initialize: #1756
  • Add parameterized virtual properties to virtuals plugin: #1755
  • Add individual attribute processor plugin to core: #1741
  • Format idAttribute on save and delete: #1680
  • Add withSchema option to all database operations: #1638
  • Add a case converter plugin to core: #1093

Bug fixes

  • Fix inconsistent timestamp values between save and fetch: #1784
  • Set if attributes being .set() contain a parsed version of idAttribute: #1760
  • Fix pagination plugin's fetchPage() ignoring or hanging with transactions: #1625
  • Fix fetchPage() from pagination plugin not working for relation collections: #1561
  • Don't try to update idAttribute if it hasn't changed: #1260

Test suite

  • Increase timeout of the large arrays test: #1778
  • Add test to verify that parentId is not undefined when using fetchAll with relations: #1769
  • Fixes and general improvements to the test suite: #1753
  • Remove OracleDB tests: #1744
  • Fix invalid test related to dirty attributes: #1312


  • Improve docs about running tests: #1761
  • Fix typo on parse-and-format tutorial: #1748
  • Add Bookshelf Manager to list of community plugins: #1747


0.12.1 Jan 8, 2018 - Diff


  • Fix incorrect value of second argument to model event handlers: #1723
  • Fix incorrect return value from .detach(): #1720
  • Fix incorrect return value from model.has(): #1712
  • Fix fetching:collection and fetched:collection not being generated or visible on the navigation bar: #1114
  • Update contributing document and issue templates: #1736
  • Add more information and links to Parse and Format docs: #1727
  • Add bookshelf-ez-fetch to Community Plugins: #1708
  • Add bookshelf-default-select to Community Plugins: #1706
  • Add information and examples about calling super() on model's initialize(): #1529
  • Add npm version badge to readme: f4dd792

Bug fixes

  • Fix inability to attach belongsToMany relation to models fetched with fetchAll(): #1716
  • Fix foreign key = 0 not fetching related object: #1639
  • Fix unparsed previousAttributes for related models: #1457


0.12.0 Nov 27, 2017 - Diff

  • Skip visibility-plugin hidden and visible attributes #1699.
    • Used w/ <model>.toJSON({ visibility: false })
  • Updated knex peer dependency version to 0.14.x #1694.
  • Documentation typo fixes #1693.
  • Now caching node_modules to speed up travis-ci builds #1695.
  • Use Docker containers for test runs #1674.
  • Make postpublish work regardless of git remote config #1697.

0.11.1 Nov 15, 2017Diff

  • Fixed regression #1691: File missing on postinstall
    • npm postinstall script can be run as a part of npm prepublish script.

0.11.0 Nov 15, 2017Diff

  • Moved .babelrc -> src/.babelrc #1470
  • Timestamp on save now utilizes a date option for timestamp updates on insert and update. #1592
    • Used in options on save like so:{item: 'test'}, { date: dateInThePast })
  • Added morphValues for morphTo relation. #1326
  • Added ability to also set timestamps as model attributes in save.
  • Removed non-production files from packaging / added them to .npmignore #1679
  • Development Facing:
    • Oracle tests only run when oracle is installed.
    • Refactoring on the registry plugin.
    • Updated a lot of documents related to repo organization.

0.10.4 - Jul 17, 2017Diff

  • Allow knex 0.13.x.
  • Use uuid instead of node-uuid.
  • Test Bookshelf with Node v7.
  • Updated Author info in package.json.
  • Remove lodash from build script.
  • Add OracleDB integration tests.
  • Add opportunity to override visible and hidden behavior for toJSON function.
  • Do not load belongsTo if foreignKey is null.
  • Optimise timestamp function: respect updated_at/created_at being part of the query.
  • Fix fetchPage on Collection (pagination plugin).
  • Fixing virtuals when omitNew=true.
  • Lot's of typo fixes and documentation updates.

0.10.3 - Jan 21, 2017Diff

  • Drop Node support for 0.10 and 0.12.
  • Trigger creating event for attached models.
  • Add support for uninstantiated models relations.
  • Add foreignKeyTarget to relation methods.

0.10.2 - Sept 22, 2016Diff

  • Fixes memory leak introduced in 0.10.0 caused by binding this.listeners in triggerThen.
  • Fixes Bluebird warning when a Promise was internally rejected with a non-error.

0.10.1 - Sept 14, 2016Diff

  • Allows using knex 0.12 as a peerDependency.
  • knex instance used by bookshelf may be swapped out.

0.10.0Jun 29, 2016Diff

Breaking Changes

  • Removal/renaming of certain lodash functions from Model and Collection that were removed in lodash 4:
    • Collection Methods
      • removed CollectionBase#collect => use CollectionBase#map instead
      • removed CollectionBase#foldl => use CollectionBase#reduce instead
      • removed CollectionBase#inject => use CollectionBase#reduce instead
      • removed CollectionBase#foldr => use CollectionBase#reduceRight instead
      • removed CollectionBase#detect => use CollectionBase#find instead
      • removed CollectionBase#select => use CollectionBase#filter instead
      • removed CollectionBase#all => use CollectionBase#every instead
      • removed CollectionBase#any => use CollectionBase#some instead
      • removed CollectionBase#include => use CollectionBase#includes instead
      • removed CollectionBase#contains => use CollectionBase#includes instead
      • removed CollectionBase#rest => use CollectionBase#tail instead
      • renamed CollectionBase#invoke => CollectionBase#invokeMap
      • split CollectionBase#max into CollectionBase#maxBy - see the lodash docs for more explanation
      • split CollectionBase#min into CollectionBase#minBy - see the lodash docs for more explanation
    • Model Methods
      • renamed ModelBase#pairs => ModelBase#toPairs

Other changes

  • Update to Lodash 4. #1287
  • Registry plugin: Better support for custom relations. #1294

0.9.5May 15, 2016Diff

  • Add pagination plugin. #1183
  • Fire Model#event:fetched on eagerly loaded relations. #1206
  • Correct cloning of Model#belongsToMany decorated relations. #1222
  • Update Knex to 0.11.x. #1227
  • Update minimum lodash version. #1230

0.9.4April 3, 2016Diff

  • Include babel-runtime as a dependency. #1188

0.9.3April 3, 2016Diff

  • Bugfix: Restore support for camelCase and colon:separated event names. #1184

0.9.2February 17, 2016Diff

  • Permit up to Knex 0.11.0 via peerDependencies.
  • Model.forge works for ES6 classes. #924
  • Fix Collection#count for hasMany relations. #1115

0.9.1November 4, 2015Diff

  • Events#off can now unregister multiple methods at once. #983
  • Permit Knex 0.10.0 via peerDependencies. #998

0.9.0November 1, 2015Diff

  • Repo no longer includes built source or generated documentation. Release script updated to include these only in the tagged release commit. #950.
  • Model#previous returned undefined instead of null for non-existent attributes.
  • Update tests and documentation to confirm that null (rather than undefined) is returned from Model#fetch and Collection#fetchOne.
  • Fix error in virtuals plugin - #936
  • Correct error updating parsed/formatted Model#idAttribute after successful insert operation. #955
  • Many documentation fixes.

0.8.2August 20, 2015Diff

  • ES6/7: Move code base to /src — code is now compiled into /lib via Babel.
  • Add collection.count, model.count and Model.count.
  • Add model.refresh. #796
  • Prevent fetch and refresh from trying to add JSON attributes to a where clause. #550 #778
  • Virtuals plugin now supports {patch: true} argument to #542
  • Restored model.clone and collection.clone, which were not previously working. #744
  • Allow bookshelf.Collection to be modified and extended by plugins (so that relations and fetchAll operations will return the extended instance). #681 #688
  • Fix model.timestamps behavior which deviated from documentation. Also ensure that createdAt is set when {method: "insert"} is passed explicitly. #787
  • Calling create on a through relationship no longer tries to make a pivot object. Previously this would attempt to create an object with invalid foreign keys. #768
  • Parse foreign keys set during create in a relation. #770

0.8.1May 12, 2015Diff

  • Fix for regression in initialize not being called in Collection constructor, #737.
  • Fix for regression, removing omitPivot in 0.8 #721
  • Added serialize, a method which contains toJSON logic for easier customization.

0.8.0May 1, 2015Diff

  • Dropped Backbone dependency.
  • More specific errors throughout, #522
  • Support {require: true} for model.destroy #617
  • Add lifecycle events on pivot models for belongsToMany, .through #578
  • Allows for select/column calls in the query builder closure, #633.
  • Added per-constructor error classes #694 (note: this will not work in CoffeeScript).

Breaking Changes

  • Removed the __super__ internal property on the constructor, this shouldn't have been something you were relying on anyway.

0.7.9Oct 28, 2014Diff

  • Fix for regression in columns / eager fetch query constraints, (#510).

0.7.8Oct 28, 2014Diff

  • Timestamp created_at is now saved with any insert.
  • Fix for regression created by #429.
  • New events, attaching, attached, detaching, detached #452.
  • Ability to specify custom column names in morphTo, #454
  • Fix for stack overflow with model list as arguments, #482
  • Modified location of eager fetch query constraints internally.

0.7.7July 23, 2014Diff

  • Fix for formatting on polymorphic keys, (#429).
  • Added a resolve method for specifying a custom resolver function for the registry plugin.

0.7.6June 29, 2014Diff

  • Add omitPivot flag on toJSON options for omitting the _pivot_ keys in through and belongsToMany relations (#404).

0.7.5June 23, 2014Diff

  • Fix missing NotFoundError & EmptyError on Model & Collection, respectively (#389, #399).

0.7.4June 18, 2014Diff

  • Added bookshelf.model(name, protoProps, [staticProps]) syntax for registry plugin.

0.7.3June 17, 2014Diff

  • Fix for collection dropping models early in set, #376.

0.7.2June 12, 2014Diff

  • Pass a cloned copy of the model's attributes to format rather than the original, related to #315.

0.7.1June 10, 2014Diff

  • Ensure the knex version >= 0.6.10, where a major regression affecting column names was fixed.

0.7.0June 9, 2014

  • Added Model#fetchAll, for fetching a collection of models from a model.
  • Added Model#where, as a shortcut for the most commonly used query method.
  • Initializing via a plain options object is deprecated, you must now pass in an initialized knex instance.
  • Adding typed errors (#221).
  • Upgrade to support knex 0.6.x

0.6.12June 5, 2014Diff

  • Fix for eager loaded belongsTo relation bug with custom parse/format (#377).

0.6.11June 4, 2014Diff

  • Temporarily add knex to peerDependencies until 0.7 is released to support knex 0.6 and there exists a better internal method of doing a semver check.
  • Fix for belongsTo relation bug (#353).

0.6.10April 3, 2014Diff

  • Bumping dependencies, including upgrading to Bluebird 1.2, trigger-then 0.3, fixing an erroneous "unhandledRejection" (#310).
  • fetchOne properly resets the query on the collection, (#300).

0.6.9April 3, 2014Diff

  • Only prefix model fields with the "tableName" after format has been called, (#308).

0.6.8March 6, 2014Diff

  • Virtuals plugin may now accept a hash of attributes to set.
  • Properly fix issue addressed in 0.6.7.

0.6.7March 2, 2014Diff

  • Bugfix for edge case for eager loaded relations and relatedData settings.

0.6.6March 1, 2014Diff

  • Bugfix for registry plugin, resolving correct models for "through" relations. (#260)

0.6.5February 28, 2014Diff

  • Added Collection#reduceThen as a passthrough to Bluebird's "reduce" method with models.
  • Options are now passed to "plugin" method. (#254)
  • Bugfix for registry plugin. (#259)

0.6.4February 11, 2014Diff

  • Adds static method Model.collection() as a shortcut for creating a collection with the current model.

0.6.3February 9, 2014Diff

  • Added anRelation#updatePivot method for updating tables on a "belongsToMany" relation. (#134, #230)
  • Allow mutating the options for passing constraints to eager loaded relations. (#151)
  • All keys of an object passed into sync are properly prefixed before sync. (#177)
  • Clearer error messages for debugging. (#204, #197)
  • Fixed error message for updates that don't affect rows. (#228)
  • Group by the correct key on "belongsTo.through" relations. (#214)
  • Ability to only use created_at or updated_at as timestamp properties. (#158)
  • Numerous documentation corrections, clarifications, enhancements.
  • Bumped Bluebird dependency to ~1.0.0.


  • Added the registry plugin for registering models as strings, helping with the circular dependency problem.
  • Added the virtuals plugin for getting/setting virtual (computed) properties on the model.
  • Added the visibility plugin for specifying a whitelist/blacklist of keys when a model is serialized with toJSON.

0.6.2December 18, 2013Diff

  • Debug may now be passed as an option in any sync method, to log queries, including relations.
  • Save now triggers an error in updates with no affected rows. (#119)
  • The attribute is only set on insert if it's empty. (#130)
  • Ensure eager loaded relations can use attach/detach. (#120)

0.6.1November 26, 2013Diff

  • Fixes bug with promise code and saving event firing, where promises are not properly resolved with ".all" during saving events.

0.6.0November 25, 2013Diff

  • Updating dependency to knex.js 0.5.x.
  • Switched from when.js to bluebird for promise implementation, with shim for backward compatibility.
  • Switched from underscore to lodash, for semver reliability.

0.5.8November 24, 2013Diff

  • Parse models after all relations have been eager loaded, for appropriate column name matching (thanks @benesch) (#97)
  • Specify table for withRelated fetches to prevent column naming conflicts (#96).
  • Fix for polymorphic relation loading (#95).
  • Other documentation tweaks and other internal code cleanup.

0.5.7October 11, 2013Diff

  • The "fetching" event is now fired on eager loaded relation fetches.

0.5.6October 10, 2013Diff

  • The options.query now contains the appropriate knex instance during the "fetching" event handler.

0.5.5October 1, 2013Diff

  • An eager loaded morphTo relation may now have child relations nested beneath it that are properly eager loaded, depending on the parent.

0.5.4October 1, 2013Diff

  • Fix issue where the relatedData context was not appropriately maintained for subsequent Collection#create calls after an eager load (#77).
  • Documentation improvements, encouraging the use of Model#related rather than calling a relation method directly, to keep association with the parent model's relations hash.

0.5.3September 26, 2013Diff

  • The columns explicitly specified in a fetch are no-longer passed along when eager loading relations, fixes (#70).

0.5.2September 22, 2013Diff

  • Fixed incorrect eager loading in belongsTo relations (#65).

0.5.1September 21, 2013Diff

  • Fixed incorrect eager loading in hasOne relations (#63).

0.5.0September 20, 2013Diff

Major Breaking Changes

  • Global state is no longer stored in the library, an instance is returned from Bookshelf.initialize, so you will need to call this once and then reference this Bookshelf client elsewhere in your application.
  • Lowercasing of bookshelf.initialize, bookshelf.knex, bookshelf.transaction.
  • During the lifecycle events, such as "fetching", "saving", or "destroying", the model no-longer contains the active query builder instance at the time it is saved. If you need to modify the query builder chain inside of an event handler, you may now use options.query inside the event handlers.

Other changes

  • Added tableName for all queries, so joins use the correct id (#61).
  • The attach & detach now remove models from the associated collection, as appropriate (#59).
  • A withPivot no longer accepts an object to specify the keys for the returned pivot items, if you wish to specify how these pivot objects are defined on the object, a custom toJSON is your best bet.
  • Added Collection#invokeThen and Collection#mapThen as convenience helpers for Promise.all(collection.invoke(method, args*)) and Promise.all(, iterator, [context])), respectively.
  • Added a Bookshelf.plugin method, for a standard way to extend Bookshelf instances.
  • A re-written modular architecture, to move the library toward becoming a database agnostic "data mapper" foundation, with the ablitiy to form relations between different data stores and types, not just SQL (although SQL is the primary focus for now). Also, support for AMD, for eventual use outside of Node.js runtime (with webSQL and likewise).

0.3.1August 29, 2013 - Diff

  • Docs
  • Fixed regression in belongsToMany custom column name order.

0.3.0August 28, 2013

  • Support for a Model#through clause on various model relations.
  • Creating a model from a related collection maintains the appropriate relation data (#35).
  • Support for a {patch: true} flag on save, to only update specific saved attributes.
  • Added a fetchOne method, for pulling out a single model from a collection, mostly useful for related collection instances.
  • Updated to Knex "0.2.x" syntax for insert / returning.
  • Ability to specify a morphValue on Model#morphOne or Model#morphMany relations.
  • Internal refactor of relations for more consistent behavior.

0.2.8August 26, 2013

  • Some minor fixes to make the Sync methods more consistent in their behavior when called directly, (#53).

0.2.7August 21, 2013

  • Timestamp for created_at is not set during an "update" query, and the update where clause does not include the idAttribute if it isn't present (#51).

0.2.6August 21, 2013

  • Fixes bug with query function feature added in 0.2.5, mentioned in (#51).

0.2.5August 19, 2013

  • The Model#query method may now accept a function, for even more dynamic query building (#45).
  • Fix for relations not allowing 0 as a valid foreign key value (#49).

0.2.4July 30, 2013

  • More consistent query resetting, fixing query issues on post-query event handlers.
  • The toJSON is only called on a related model if the method exists, allowing for objects or arrays to be manually specified on the relations hash and serialized properly on the parent's toJSON.

0.2.3July 7, 2013

  • Fixing bug where triggerThen wasn't actually being used for several of the events as noted in 0.2.1 release.

0.2.2July 2, 2013

  • The Model's related method is now a no-op if the model doesn't have the related method.

  • Any withPivot columns on many-to-many relations are now prefixed with _pivot rather than pivot unless named otherwise, for consistency.

  • The _reset is not called until after all triggered events so that hasChanged can be used on the current model state in the "created", "updated", "saved", and "destroyed" events.

  • Eager queries may be specified as an object with a function, to constrain the eager queries:

    user.fetch({withRelated: ['accounts', { 'accounts.settings': function(qb) { qb.where('status', 'enabled'); } }, 'other_data']}).then(...

0.2.1June 26, 2013

  • Using triggerThen instead of trigger for "created", "updated", "saved", "destroyed", and "fetched" events - if any async operations are needed after the model is created but before resolving the original promise.

0.2.0June 24, 2013

  • Resolve Model's fetch promise with null rather than undefined.
  • An object of query constraints (e.g. {where: {...}, orWhere: {...}}may be passed to the query method (#30).
  • Fix for empty eager relation responses not providing an empty model or collection instance on the model.relations object.

0.1.9June 19, 2013

  • Resolve Model's fetch promise with undefined if no model was returned.
  • An array of "created at" and "updated at" values may be used for hasTimestamps.
  • Format is called on the Model#fetch method.
  • Added an exec plugin to provide a node callback style interface for any of the promise methods.

0.1.8June 18, 2013

  • Added support for polymorphic associations, with morphOne, morphMany, and morphTo model methods.

0.1.7June 15, 2013

  • Bugfix where detach may be used with no parameters to detach all related items (#19).

0.1.6June 15, 2013

  • Fixing bug allowing custom idAttribute values to be used in eager loaded many-to-many relations (#18).

0.1.5June 11, 2013

  • Ensuring each of the _previousAttribute and changed values are properly reset on related models after sync actions.

0.1.4June 10, 2013

  • Fixing issue with idAttribute not being assigned after database inserts.
  • Removing various aliases Events methods for clarity.

0.1.3June 10, 2013

  • Added Model#hasChanged, Model#previous, and Model#previousAttributes methods, for getting the previous value of the model since the last sync.
  • Using Object.create(null) for various internal model objects dealing with user values.
  • Calling Model#related on a model will now create an empty related object if one is not present on the relations object.
  • Removed the {patch: true} option on save, instead only applying defaults if the object isNew, or if {defaults: true} is passed.
  • Fix for model.clone's relation responses.

0.1.2May 17, 2013

  • Added triggerThen and emitThen for promise based events, used internally in the "creating", "updating", "saving", and "destroying" events.
  • Docs updates, fixing {patch: true} on update to have intended functionality.
  • A model's toJSON is now correctly called on any related properties.

0.1.1May 16, 2013

  • Fixed bug with eager loaded belongsTo relations (#14).

0.1.0May 13, 2013

  • Initial Bookshelf release.